O.Kovalkov, PhD in History, Associate Professor
V. Vynnychenko Central Ukraine State Pedagogical University, Kropyvnytskyi, Ukraine
THE ATTITUDES OF AFGHAN STUDENTS IN THE UKRAINIAN SSR TO THE SOVIET INTERVENTION IN AFGHANISTAN AND WITHDRAWAL OF SOVIET TROOPS (1979 – 1989)
The article examines the political views of Afghan students studying in the Ukrainian SSR and their attitude towards the Soviet intervention in Afghanistan and the withdrawal of Soviet troops from that country. The sources of the study were KGB analytical reports from the Branch Archive of the Ukrainian Security Service, documents of educational institutions in Kirovohrad where Afghans studied, from the State Archives of Kirovohrad region, texts of the Soviet-Afghan educational cooperation agreements, notices and diary records of the USSR ambassador in Afghanistan and other Soviet officials on meetings and conversation with Afghan politicians.
It was proven that the studying of Afghans in the USSR was one of the means of the Soviet policy toward Afghanistan aimed at its forced socialist modernization. The studying of Afghans in the Soviet Union led to emergence of a large pro-Soviet stratum of the Afghan society.
The factors that determined the different attitudes of Afghan students studying in the Ukrainian SSR to the armed Soviet intervention in the Afghan crisis in December 1979 were identified. Most Afghans endorsed the USSR's military intervention in the "Afghan crisis". They believed that this was necessary to protect the achievements of the "April Revolution" and to counter "world imperialism". Some of them expressed concern, fear, and even negative attitudes toward the USSR policies. These sentiments were influenced by a factional affiliation: supporters of the "Parcham" and the "Hulk" group associated with N. M. Taraki endorsed the Soviet intervention, while supporters of H. Amin condemned it.
The Afghan students in the Ukrainian SSR largely rejected the withdrawal of the Soviet troops from Afghanistan in February 1989. Most of them viewed it as a betrayal by the Soviet Union. They were convinced that this would lead to the fall of M. Najibullah's regime and the defeat of the "April Revolution" in Afghanistan.
Key words: Afghanistan, the Ukrainian SSR, students, intervention, troops’ withdrawal, political views, attitudes.
Received by the editorial board: 16.04.2020
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