V. Shved, PhD in History, Associate Professor
State Institution "Institute of World History of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine", Kyiv, Ukraine
TRANSFORMATION OF THE SAUDI MODEL OF HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE CONTEXT OF MODERN CHALLENGES
The article deals with the main features of the Saudi model of historical development transformation. It analyzes a number of factors which forces the process of fundamental updating of the current model of development, which is led by the royal family of Saudi Arabia. The current model of development was based on the extraordinary profits from the oil trade and a fundamentalist Islam, generally known as Wahhabism, is mentioned. Among these factors we should take into account: the steep decrease in the world oil market during 2015–2016; partly replacement of Saudi Arabia by the United States on this market caused by the shale revolution; the significant increase in tensions with Iran for hegemony in the Middle East and because of connection with its military intervention in Yemen.
The research shows that the current Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia Mohammed bin Salman, who united the team of young revolutionists – Young Saudis, was the main inspirer and organizer of the "White Revolution". The program of the Kingdom's modern strategic development is reviewed. It determines the new main measures of the historical development, known as "Saudi Vision 2030", and connected with its project "NEOM". The author argues that the principal tasks of "Saudi Vision 2030" and the project "NEOM" are the denial of rent model of economy, becoming Saudi Arabia's transformation into the world biggest investment hub and global center of the meeting of civilizations.
The author shows, that deep changes in the economy, finance and investments are accompanied by the huge transformation in the mindsets of society. One of the main components of these changes is the waiver of Wahhabism and transition to the moderate Islam, as well as hasty establishment of the new Saudi identity on the base of active promotion of nationalism that focuses not on religious, but on the state-building aspect of the modern Saudi nation development. The researcher proposes to take into account these new changes in Saudi reality during development of Ukraine-Saudi Arabia relations more carefully and to study this experience in the course of the formation of modern Ukrainian model of historical development.
Keywords: model of historical development, "Saudi Vision 2030", project "NEOM", Mohammed bin Salman.
Received by the editorial board: 13.08.2020
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