Issue 142 (2019)

I. Papa, PhD student

ORCID: 0000-0003-4887-5626

Ukrainian Catholic University, Lviv, Ukraine



The long and active competition among some European states for the political and economic domination in the Baltic region led to the Great Northern War, a large-scale and long-lasting military conflict that significantly influenced international relations. The course of this war was saturated not only with big battles and massive military campaigns but also a "diplomatic front," in which the rulers, with the help of diplomats, tried to win this war with more benefits to their states and political interests.

The mission of Danish diplomat Just Juel (1709-1711) is one of the episodes not only of Danish diplomacy during the Northern War but also the history of international relations in the early 18th century. The "thick text" of the travel diary, written by this Danish envoy during his mission, allows us to some extent imagine and reconstruct certain peculiarities of international relations in Northeast Europe; to learn more about the known events and little-known facts; to evaluate the role of diplomats in establishing relationships between states and their rulers during the wartime period.

Key words: Just Juel, Danish diplomatic mission (1709-1711), "diplomatic front", The Great Northern war, travel diary, international relations.

Received by the editorial board: 06.06.2019

Download Full Text


1. Artamonov, V. (1987). Russia and European States throughout the Years of the Northern War. The History of Diplomatic Relations in 1697-1710. History Issues, (9), 136-140. [In Russian].

2. Artamonov, V. (1990). Russia and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth after the Battle of Poltava (1709-1714). Moscow: Science. [In Russian].

3. Bagger, H. (1996). Danish-Russian Relations in the 18th Century. In: S. Christensen & H. Gottlieb (Eds.), Denmark and Russia. 500 Years. – Moscow: International Relations. Pp. 62-84. [In Russian].

4. Bagger, H. (1985). Reforms of Peter the Great. Moscow: Progress. [In Russian].

5. Bogdanov, A. (2003). Russian Foreign Policy and European Press of 1676-1689. Voprosy istorii, 4, 26-46. [In Russian].

6. Vozgrin, V. (1982). The Sources on Russian-Scandinavian Relations in the 16th-18th Centuries. In V. Ruttenburg (Ed.), Manuscript Sources on the History of the Western Europe in the Archive of Leningrad Department of Institute of History of USSR: Archival Collection. Leningrad: [s.n.]. Pp. 124-157. [In Russian].

7. Vozgrin, V. (1982). The Information about Russia in the 16th-18th Centuries According to the Correspondence of Danish Ambassadors. In S. Shmidt (Ed.), Archaeographic Almanac. Pp. 148-151. [In Russian].

8. Vozgrin, V. (1986). Russia and European States throughout the Years of the Northern War: History of Diplomatic Relations in 1697-1710. Leningrad: Science. [In Russian].

9. Christensen, S. & Gottlieb, H. (Eds.). (1996). Denmark and Russia. 500 Years. – Moscow: International Relations. [In Russian].

10. Epifanov, P. (1971). Russia in the Northern War. History Issues, 6-7, 116-129; 117-134. [In Russian].

11. Shhebachhyov, Yu. (Ed.). (1899). Memoirs of Just Juel, the Danish Delegate at Court of Peter the Great, 1709-1711. Extracted from the Copenhagen Archive by Yu. Shhebachhyov; Notes from G. Grove’s Edition. Moscow: University Press. [In Russian].

12. Nosov, N. (Ed.) et al. (1970). The Historical Connections between Scandinavia and Russia. From 9th to 20th Centuries. Leningrad: [s.n.]. [In Russian].

13. The History of Denmark from the Earliest Times until 20th Century. (1996). Moscow: Science. [In Russian].

14. Kozinceva, R. (1970). The Sources Regarding the History of Russian-Scandinavian Relations at the Archive of Leningrad Department of the USSR Institute of History. In N. Nosov (Ed.) et al, The Historical Connections between Scandinavia and Russia. From 9th to 20th Centuries. Leningrad: [s.n.]. Pp. 342-355. [In Russian].

15. Kosincev, Yu. (2016). V. L. Dolgorukov’s Struggle for the Danish Return to the Northern Alliance in 1709. Bulletin of Perm State University. History, 1(32), 67-76. Retrieved from [In Russian].

16. Nalyvaiko, D. (1998). According to the Eyes of West: the Reception of Ukraine in Western Europe from 11th to 18th Centuries. Kyiv: Foundation. [In Ukrainian].

17. Nekrasov, G. (1968). The Issues and Organization of Scandinavian Historical Research in the USSR. Scandinavian Digest, 13, 11-35. [In Russian].

18. Pavlenko, S. (2003). The Representatives of Secret and Transparent Diplomacy during the Hetmanat of Ivan Mazepa (1687-1709). Diplomatic Ukraine. Scientific Almanac, 4, 638-665. [In Ukrainian].

19. Papa, I. (2018). (Non)everyday Life of the Danish Diplomat during His Mission (According to the Materials of Just Juel’s Travel Diary, 1709-1711). Proceedings of National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy. Historical Sciences, 1, 3-11. [In Ukrainian].

20. Sichynskyi, V. (1937). Foreigners about Ukraine: Selection from Essays on Journeys around Ukraine and Other Write-Ups by Foreigners about Ukraine throughout Ten Centuries. Prague: [s.n.]. [In Ukrainian].

21. Sterlikova, A. (2015). Russian Foreign Policy and Diplomacy throughout the Period of the Northern War in National Historiography. Bulletin of O. Pushkin Leningrad State University. History, 4(2), 61-67. [In Russian].

22. Sterlikova, A. (2008). Russia and European Countries until the Middle of the Northern War (1714-1715). Bulletin of O. Pushkin Leningrad State University. History, 4, 56-69. [In Russian].

23. Fejgina, S. (1995). According to the Pages of the Foreign Research of Russian Foreign Policy from the 16th to 18th centuries. History Issues, 12, 204-211. [In Russian].

24. Fejgina, S. (1959). Aland Congress: Russian Foreign Policy in the End of the Northern War. Moscow.

25. Fejgina, S. (1951). Foreign Policy of Russia at the Final Stage of the Northern War and the Aland Congress. Abstract of unpublished Doctoral Thesis in History. Moscow. [In Russian].

26. Forsten, G. (1893-1894). The Baltic Issue in the 16th and 17th Centuries. Volumes 1-2. Saint Petersburg. [In Russian].

27. Forsten, G. (1884). The Struggle for Baltic Sea Supremacy in the 15th and 16th Centuries. Saint Petersburg. [In Russian].

28. Chukhlib, T. (2009). Mazepa’s Ukraine between the Russian and Swedish Crowns: a Protection Choice Dilemma. Ukrainian Historical Journal, 2, 16-39. [In Ukrainian].

29. Chukhlib, T. (2011). Cossacks of the Right-Bank Ukraine in the Foreign Affairs during the Northern War in 1700-1721. Ukrainian Historical Journal, 1, 4-33. [In Ukrainian].

30. Chukhlib, T. (2007). Ukrainian Hetmanat: the Problem of International Recognition. Kyiv: Our Time. [In Ukrainian].

31. Shaskol’skij, I. (1994). Russian Sea-Borne Trade in Baltic in the 17th Century. Saint Petersburg [In Russian].

32. En Rejse til Rusland under Tsar Peter, Dagbogsoptegnelser af viceadmiral Just Juel, Dansk Gesandt i Rusland, 1709-1711. Med illustrationer og oplysende anmaerkninger ved Gerhard L. Grove. (1893). København: Gyldendal.

33. Bagger, H. (1993). The Role of the Baltic in Russian Foreign Policy, 1721-1773. In H. Ragsdale & V. Ponomarev (Eds.), Imperial Russian Foreign Policy. Washington and New York: Wilson Center and Cambridge Univerity Presses. Pp.36-72.

34. Bohlen, A. (1966). Changes in Russian Diplomacy under Peter the Great. Cahiers du Monde Russe et Soviétique, 7(3), 341-358.

35. Bushkovitch, P. (2001). Peter the Great: the Struggle for Power 1671-1725. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

36. Danielsen, J. (1975). Just Juels rejse til Moskva 1709-11. København: [s.n.].

37. Frost, R. (2000). The Northen Wars: War, State and Society in Northеastern Europe 1558-1721. Harlow, Essex: Longman.

38. Hassø, A. & Kroman, E. (1973). Danish Department of Foreign Affairs until 1770. Copenhagen: Rigsarkivet.

39. Jensen, B. (1968). Dansk-russiske relationer 1697–1709. Historie, 8, 397-465.

40. Kjølsen, K. (1991). Det Diplomatiske Fag. Den danske Udenrigstjenestes Forvaltning 1700-1770. Organisation. Institutioner. Embeder og personale. Drift. Odense: Universitetsforlag.

41. Marquard, E. (1952). Danske Gesandter og Gesandtskabspersonale indtil 1914. København: Munksgaard.

42. Møller, P. (1993). Hvordan russerne er: et stykke dansk mentalitets historie. In S. Christensen & H. Gottlieb, Danmark og Rusland i 500 år. København: Rigsarkivet. Pp. 104-131.

43. Møller, P. (1997). The Russians as seen by Three Danish Travellers in the First Half of the Eighteenth Century: Juel, Æreboe, von Haven. Culture & history, 14, 48-66.

44. Poe, M. (1995). Foreign Descriptions of Muscovy, an Analytic Bibliography of Primary and Secondary sources. Columbus, Ohio: Slavica.

45. Lieven, D. (2006). The Cambridge History of Russia: Imperial Russia, 1689-1917. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

46. Kouri, E. (2016). The Cambridge History of Scandinavia, 1520-1870. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.